VJ Gnanapragasam, K Burling, A George, S Stearn, A Warren, T Barrett, B Koo, FA Gallagher, A Doble, C Kastner, RA Parker
Both multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) and the Prostate Health Index (PHI) have shown promise in predicting a positive biopsy in men with suspected prostate cancer. Here we investigated the value of combining both tests in men requiring a repeat biopsy. PHI scores were measured in men undergoing re-biopsy with an mpMRI image-guided transperineal approach (n = 279, 94 with negative mpMRIs). The PHI was assessed for ability to add value to mpMRI in predicting all or only significant cancers (Gleason ≥7). In this study adding PHI to mpMRI improved overall and significant cancer prediction (AUC 0.71 and 0.75) compared to mpMRI + PSA alone (AUC 0.64 and 0.69 respectively). At a threshold of ≥35, PHI + mpMRI demonstrated a NPV of 0.97 for excluding significant tumours. In mpMRI negative men, the PHI again improved prediction of significant cancers; AUC 0.76 vs 0.63 (mpMRI + PSA). Using a PHI≥35, only 1/21 significant cancers was missed and 31/73 (42%) men potentially spared a re-biopsy (NPV of 0.97, sensitivity 0.95). Decision curve analysis demonstrated clinically relevant utility of the PHI across threshold probabilities of 5-30%. In summary, the PHI adds predictive performance to image-guided detection of clinically significant cancers and has particular value in determining re-biopsy need in men with a negative mpMRI.