DI Jodrell, DR Newell, W Gibson, LR Hughes, AH Calvert
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol
N-(5-[N-(3,4-Dihydro-2-methyl-4-oxoquinazolin-6-ylmethyl)-N- methylamino]-2-thenoyl)-L-glutamic acid (ICI D1694) is an analogue of the thymidylate synthase inhibitor N10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid (CB3717). CB3717 was found to be an active anticancer agent in early clinical studies, but its use was limited by its relative insolubility at physiological pH. ICI D1694 has been shown to be a more active anticancer agent than CB3717 in model systems, and it is devoid of the acute renal toxicity associated with the administration of the latter drug to mice. In the present study, the pharmacokinetics of ICI D1694 were studied in both mice and rats using reverse-phase HPLC. In rats, ICI D1694 clearance (CL) conformed to a two-compartment open model and was rapid (CL = 10.7 ml min-1 kg-1, t1/2 beta = 30 min). Excretion was mainly biliary (65% of the delivered dose in 4 h vs 12% in urine) in the rat following a 100-mg/kg i.v. bolus. A high degree of protein binding was seen in rat plasma (greater than or equal to 90% over the range of 20-100 microM). In mice, ICI D1694 CL = 27 ml min-1 kg-1 and t1/2 beta = 30 min following 100 mg/kg i.v., which was significantly faster than CB3717 clearance (CL = 6 ml min-1 kg-1, t1/2 beta = 93 min). ICI D1694 was fully bioavailable following i.p. administration (AUC = 3.73 mg ml-1 min i.v. 4.03 mg ml-1 min i.p.), but its bioavailability following oral administration appeared to be low (approximately 10%-20%). Tissue distribution and excretion studies in mice suggested that biliary excretion predominated, confirming the results obtained in rats. Following an i.v. dose of 500 mg/kg ICI D1694 in mice, drug was detectable at 24 h, suggesting the presence of a third phase of plasma clearance. The initial HPLC assay could not detect this third phase following a dose of 100 mg/kg; hence, a more sensitive assay was developed that includes a solid-phase extraction step. The latter assay was used to define the third phase of ICI D1694 clearance in mice, and preliminary studies demonstrated a terminal half-life of 6.5 +/- 2.7 h.