F Willenbrock, T Crabbe, PM Slocombe, CW Sutton, AJ Docherty, MI Cockett, M O'Shea, K Brocklehurst, IR Phillips, G Murphy
The cloning and expression of the full-length tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2), delta 187-194TIMP-2, and delta 128-194TIMP-2 and the purification of these inhibitors and a cleaved version of TIMP-2 lacking nine C-terminal amino acids (delta 186-194TIMP-2) are described. The mechanism of inhibition of gelatinase A by the TIMPs was investigated by comparing the kinetics of association of TIMP-1, TIMP-2, the C-terminal deletions, and the mutants of both TIMPs which consisted of the N-terminal domain only. The full-length TIMPs inhibited gelatinase A rapidly with association constants of 3.2 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 for TIMP-1 and 2.1 x 10(7) M-1 s-1 for TIMP-2 at I = 0.2. The C-terminal peptide of TIMP-2 is proposed to exist as an exposed "tail" responsible for binding to progelatinase A and for increasing the rate of inhibition of active gelatinase A through electrostatic interactions with the C-terminal domain of the enzyme. The C-terminal domains of both TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 participate in low-affinity interactions with the C-terminal domain of gelatinase A which increase the rate of association by a factor of about 100 in both cases.