C Nyalendo, M Michaud, E Beaulieu, C Roghi, G Murphy, D Gingras, R Béliveau
J Biol Chem
Membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a transmembrane MMP that plays important roles in migratory processes underlying tumor invasion and angiogenesis. In addition to its matrix degrading activity, MT1-MMP also contains a short cytoplasmic domain whose involvement in cell locomotion seems important but remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that MT1-MMP is phosphorylated on the unique tyrosine residue located within this cytoplasmic sequence (Tyr(573)) and that this phosphorylation requires the kinase Src. Using phosphospecific antibodies recognizing MT1-MMP phosphorylated on Tyr(573), we observed that tyrosine phosphorylation of the enzyme is rapidly induced upon stimulation of tumor and endothelial cells with the platelet-derived chemoattractant sphingosine-1-phosphate, suggesting a role in migration triggered by this lysophospholipid. Accordingly, overexpression of a nonphosphorylable MT1-MMP mutant (Y573F) blocked sphingosine-1-phosphate-induced migration of Human umbilical vein endothelial cells and HT-1080 (human fibrosarcoma) cells and failed to stimulate migration of cells lacking the enzyme (bovine aortic endothelial cells). Altogether, these findings strongly suggest that the Src-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of MT1-MMP plays a key role in cell migration and further emphasize the importance of the cytoplasmic domain of the enzyme in this process.