UN Vaishampayan, AM Burger, EA Sausville, LK Heilbrun, J Li, MN Horiba, MJ Egorin, P Ivy, S Pacey, PM Lorusso
Clin Cancer Res
PURPOSE: Heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 inhibition affects the Raf kinase signaling pathway and could enhance antitumor effects of sorafenib, a Raf kinase inhibitor. The combination of sorafenib and tanespimycin [17-allyl-amino-geldanamycin (17-AAG); NSC 330507/KOS-953] was evaluated in a phase I trial with the primary objective of defining a phase II dose. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The dose cohorts consisted of fixed continuous oral dosing of 400 mg sorafenib twice daily, starting at 14 days before tanespimycin, which was administered intravenously at escalating doses (starting at 300 mg/m,(2) with 50 mg/m(2) increments), on days 1, 8, and 15 in a 28-day cycle. Toxicity was assessed weekly, and response was evaluated every two cycles. RESULTS: Twenty-seven toxicity-evaluable patients were enrolled and treated at four dose levels. Predominant primary malignancies were renal cancer (12), melanoma (6), and colorectal cancer (4). Dose-limiting toxicities of grade 4 transaminitis and grade 3 hand-foot syndrome in one patient each were observed at 450 mg/m(2) of tanespimycin. One hundred fourteen cycles were administered with a median of four cycles (range 1-17 cycles). Plasma concentrations of sorafenib and metabolites reached steady state after 7 days. Tanespimycin did not alter sorafenib concentrations. Pharmacodynamics showed a decrease in Hsp90 levels and induction of Hsp70. Clinical efficacy was observed in 9 of 12 renal cancer patients and 4 of 6 melanoma patients CONCLUSIONS: Recommended phase II doses of this combination are 400 mg sorafenib twice daily and 400 mg/m(2) tanespimycin on days 1, 8, and 15, every 28 days. Clinical and pharmacodynamic activity was observed in kidney cancer and melanoma.