Rat tumor response to the vascular-disrupting agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid as measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, plasma 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels, and tumor necrosis.
LD McPhail, DJO McIntyre, C Ludwig, P Kestell, JR Griffiths, LR Kelland, SP Robinson
The dose-dependent effects of 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) on rat GH3 prolactinomas were investigated in vivo. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) was used to assess tumor blood flow/permeability pretreatment and 24 hours posttreatment with 0, 100, 200, or 350 mg/kg DMXAA. DCE-MRI data were analyzed using K(trans) and the integrated area under the gadolinium time curve (IAUGC) as response biomarkers. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the plasma concentration of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) following treatment to provide an index of increased vessel permeability and vascular damage. Finally, tumor necrosis was assessed by grading hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections cut from the same tumors investigated by MRI. Both tumor K(trans) and IAUGC were significantly reduced 24 hours posttreatment with 350 mg/kg DMXAA only, with no evidence of dose response. HPLC demonstrated a significant increase in plasma 5-HIAA 24 hours posttreatment with 200 and 350 mg/kg DMXAA. Histologic analysis revealed some evidence of tumor necrosis following treatment with 100 or 200 mg/kg DMXAA, reaching significance with 350 mg/kg DMXAA. The absence of any reduction in K(trans) or IAUGC following treatment with 200 mg/kg, despite a significant increase in 5-HIAA, raises concerns about the utility of established DCE-MRI biomarkers to assess tumor response to DMXAA.