C Eng, DP Smith, LM Mulligan, MA Nagai, CS Healey, MA Ponder, E Gardner, GF Scheumann, CE Jackson, A Tunnacliffe
Hum Mol Genet
The susceptibility loci for the three multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2 syndromes have been mapped to the region of chromosome 10q11.2 containing the RET proto-oncogene, which codes for a receptor tyrosine kinase. The majority of MEN 2A and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma results from missense mutations within one of five cysteine codons in the extracellular domain of the RET proto-oncogene. We now report a missense mutation, resulting in the substitution of a threonine for a methionine at codon 918 in the tyrosine kinase catalytic domain, in the germline of 26 of 28 apparently distinct families with MEN 2B. DNA from five of 13 apparently sporadic MTC and one of 12 apparently sporadic phaeochromocytomas harboured a similar mutation, but the corresponding germline DNA was wildtype in each case.