M Fouladi, CF Stewart, J Olson, LM Wagner, A Onar-Thomas, M Kocak, RJ Packer, S Goldman, S Gururangan, A Gajjar, T Demuth, LE Kun, JM Boyett, RJ Gilbertson
J Clin Oncol
PURPOSE: To estimate the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), describe dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and characterize pharmacokinetic properties of MK-0752, a gamma secretase inhibitor, in children with refractory or recurrent CNS malignancies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: MK-0752 was administered once daily for 3 consecutive days of every 7 days at escalating dosages starting at 200 mg/m(2). The modified continual reassessment method was used to estimate the MTD. A course was 28 days in duration. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed during the first course. Expression of NOTCH and hairy enhancer of split (HES) proteins was assessed in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) before and following treatment with MK-0752. RESULTS: Twenty-three eligible patients were enrolled: 10 males (median age, 8.1 years; range, 2.6 to 17.7 years) with diagnoses of brainstem glioma (n = 6), ependymoma (n = 8), medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (n = 4), glioblastoma multiforme (n = 2), atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (n = 1), malignant glioma (n = 1), and choroid plexus carcinoma, (n = 1). Seventeen patients were fully evaluable for toxicity. No DLTs occurred in the three patients enrolled at 200 mg/m(2)/dose. At 260 mg/m(2)/dose, DLTs occurred in two of six patients, both of whom experienced grade 3 ALT and AST. There were no grade 4 toxicities; non-dose-limiting grade 3 toxicities included hypokalemia and lymphopenia. Population pharmacokinetic values (% coefficient of variation) for MK-0752 were apparent oral clearance, 0.444 (38%) L/h/m(2); apparent volume of distribution, 7.36 (24%) L/m(2); and k(a), 0.358 (99%) hr(-1). CONCLUSION: MK-0752 is well-tolerated in children with recurrent CNS malignancies. The recommended phase II dose using the 3 days on followed by 4 days off schedule is 260 mg/m(2)/dose once daily.