L Troeberg, B Mulloy, P Ghosh, M-H Lee, G Murphy, H Nagase
The semi-synthetic sulfated polysaccharide PPS (pentosan polysulfate) increases affinity between the aggrecan-degrading ADAMTSs (adamalysins with thrombospondin motifs) and their endogenous inhibitor, TIMP (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases)-3. In the present study we demonstrate that PPS mediates the formation of a high-affinity trimolecular complex with ADAMTS-5 and TIMP-3. A TIMP-3 mutant that lacks extracellular-matrix-binding ability was insensitive to this affinity increase, and truncated forms of ADAMTS-5 that lack the Sp (spacer) domain had reduced PPS-binding ability and sensitivity to the affinity increase. PPS molecules composed of 11 or more saccharide units were 100-fold more effective than those of eight saccharide units, indicating the involvement of extended or multiple protein-interaction sites. The formation of a high-affinity trimolecular complex was completely abolished in the presence of 0.4 M NaCl. These results suggest that PPS enhances the affinity between ADAMTS-5 and TIMP-3 by forming electrostatically driven trimolecular complexes under physiological conditions.