HC Addley, HA Vargas, PL Moyle, R Crawford, E Sala
Gynecologic malignancies account for 10%-15% of all malignancies in females. A variety of oncologic options are available depending on organ of origin, histologic diagnosis, and disease grade and stage. Gynecologic malignancies are usually treated with surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy. Posttreatment imaging plays a crucial role in the assessment of treatment response and tumor recurrence. Imaging of the female pelvis following chemotherapy and radiation therapy is particularly challenging due to alteration of the normal anatomy and loss of tissue planes. Expected changes in appearance occur following chemotherapy-radiation therapy, as do complications such as fistulas, proctitis, enteritis, typhlitis, cystitis, and insufficiency fractures. Radiologists should be familiar with both the expected posttreatment imaging findings and the imaging features of common complications to help make the correct interpretation and avoid possible pitfalls.