RI Jakacki, M Hamilton, RJ Gilbertson, SM Blaney, J Tersak, MD Krailo, AM Ingle, SD Voss, JE Dancey, PC Adamson
J Clin Oncol
PURPOSE: We conducted a phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor erlotinib as a single agent and in combination with temozolomide in children with refractory solid tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Erlotinib was administered orally once daily to cohorts of three to six children for a single 28-day course. Patients then received the combination of daily erlotinib and temozolomide daily for 5 days for all subsequent 28-day courses. An oral erlotinib solution was administered during the dose-finding phase and a tablet formulation was subsequently studied at the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD). Pharmacokinetic studies and ERBB-receptor expression and signaling studies were performed. RESULTS: Forty-six patients, median age 11.5 years, received erlotinib at doses of 35, 50, 65, 85, or 110 mg/m(2)/d. At 110 mg/m(2)/d, two of four patients had dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) consisting of rash and hyperbilirubinemia, whereas one of six patients developed dose-limiting rash at 85 mg/m(2)/d. The most frequent non-DLTs included diarrhea, rash, and hyperbilirubinemia. The combination of erlotinib and temozolomide was well tolerated. The median apparent erlotinib clearance was 3.1 L/h/m(2) and the median terminal half-life was 8.7 hours. One patient with a neurocytoma had stable disease for 19 months, two patients with neuroblastoma remained on study for 23 and 24 months, and one patient with myoepithelioma had a mixed response. CONCLUSION: The recommended phase II dose of erlotinib in recurrent pediatric solid tumors is 85 mg/m(2)/d, either alone or in combination with temozolomide.