O Oldenburg, X-M Yang, T Krieg, KD Garlid, MV Cohen, GJ Grover, JM Downey
J Mol Cell Cardiol
We have recently proposed that opening of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels (mitoK(ATP)) acts as a trigger for preconditioning (PC) by causing mitochondria to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Controversy exists as to whether the putative sarcolemma-selective K(ATP) channel opener P1075 also opens mitoK(ATP) channels and may be cardioprotective. We purified mitoK(ATP) channels from either rabbit heart, rat heart or rat brain and reconstituted the proteins into liposomes. mitoK(ATP) channels from each of these tissues were opened by P1075 with EC(50) values of 60-90 nM. We next tested whether P1075 causes rabbit cardiomyocytes to produce ROS in a K(ATP)-dependent fashion. Mitochondrial ROS production was monitored by the appearance of fluorescence as reduced MitoTracker Red was oxidized. P1075 (100 microM) led to a 44 +/- 9% increase in ROS generation (P < 0.001 vs. untreated cells), which was similar to the increase seen with 50 microM diazoxide, a selective mitoK(ATP) channel opener (49 +/- 9%, P < 0.001 vs. untreated cells). The effect of P1075 was equally potent at a concentration of 150 nM. The P1075-induced increase in ROS production was blocked by 50 microM glibenclamide (GLI), a non-selective K(ATP) blocker, and by 5-hydroxydecanoate (1 mM), a highly selective mitoK(ATP) blocker (-6 +/- 14% and +4 +/- 12%, respectively; P = n.s). In isolated rabbit hearts, P1075 (150 nM) markedly reduced infarct size compared to control animals (10.6 +/- 8.1% of the area at risk vs. 31.5 +/- 5.6%, P < 0.05). GLI (5 microM) as well as 5-hydroxydecanoate (200 microM) completely blocked P1075's anti-infarct effect (31.7 +/- 9.5% and 27.7 +/- 4.6% infarction, respectively; P = n.s. vs. untreated hearts). These data provide strong evidence that P1075 does open mitoK(ATP) channels and protects the ischemic rabbit heart in a mitoK(ATP)-dependent manner.