S Nougaret, HC Addley, PE Colombo, S Fujii, SS Al Sharif, SH Tirumani, K Jardon, E Sala, C Reinhold
Ovarian carcinoma is the most common cause of death due to gynecologic malignancy. Peritoneal involvement is present in approximately 70% of patients at the time of initial diagnosis. The disease spreads abdominally by direct extension, exfoliation of tumor cells into the peritoneal space, and dissemination of tumor cells along lymphatic pathways. Carcinomatosis characterizes an advanced stage of disease in which peritoneal disease has spread throughout the upper abdomen (stage IIIC) or in which diffuse peritoneal disease is accompanied by malignant pleural infiltration or visceral metastases (stage IV). Common sites of intraperitoneal seeding of ovarian carcinoma include the pelvis, omentum, paracolic gutters, liver capsule, and diaphragm. Soft-tissue thickening, nodularity, and enhancement are all signs of peritoneal involvement. Advanced-stage disease is treated either with initial cytoreductive surgery (debulking) followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, or with initial neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by debulking. Radiologic imaging plays an important role in the selection of patients who may benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy before debulking. However, accurate interpretation of the imaging findings is challenging and requires a detailed knowledge of the complex peritoneal anatomy, directionality of flow of peritoneal fluid, and specific disease sites that are likely to present particular difficulties with regard to surgical access and technique. Although there is as yet no clear consensus on the criteria for resectability of peritoneal lesions, extensive involvement of the small bowel or mesenteric root, involved lymph nodes superior to the celiac axis, pleural infiltration, pelvic sidewall invasion, bladder trigone involvement, and hepatic parenchymal metastases or implants near the right hepatic vein are considered indicative of potential nonresectability. Implants larger than 2 cm in diameter in the diaphragm, lesser sac, porta hepatis, intersegmental fissure, gallbladder fossa, or gastrosplenic or gastrohepatic ligament also may represent nonresectable disease.