The prevalence of specific infections in UK prostate cancer patients was investigated. Serum from 84 patients and 62 controls was tested for neutralisation of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV) Envelope. No reactivity was found in the patient samples. In addition, a further 100 prostate DNA samples were tested for XMRV, BK virus, Trichomonas vaginalis and human papilloma viruses by nucleic acid detection techniques. Despite demonstrating DNA integrity and assay sensitivity, we failed to detect the presence of any of these agents in DNA samples, bar one sample that was weakly positive for HPV16. Therefore we conclude that these infections are absent in this typical cohort of men with prostate cancer.