T Gondo, H Hricak, E Sala, J Zheng, CS Moskowitz, M Bernstein, JA Eastham, HA Vargas
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of pre-treatment 3-Tesla (3T) multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) for predicting Gleason score (GS) downgrading after radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with GS 3 + 4 prostate cancer (PCa) on biopsy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 304 patients with biopsy-proven GS 3 + 4 PCa who underwent mpMRI before RP. On T2-weighted imaging and three mpMRI combinations (T2-weighted imaging + diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI], T2-weighted imaging + dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI [DCE-MRI], and T2-weighted imaging + DWI + DCE-MRI), two radiologists (R1/R2) scored the presence of a dominant tumour using a 5-point Likert scale (1 = definitely absent to 5 = definitely present). Diagnostic performance in identifying downgrading was evaluated via areas under the curves (AUCs). Predictive accuracies of multivariate models were calculated. RESULTS: In predicting downgrading, T2-weighted imaging + DWI (AUC = 0.89/0.85 for R1/R2) performed significantly better than T2-weighted imaging alone (AUC = 0.72/0.73; p < 0.001/p = 0.02 for R1/R2), while T2-weighted imaging + DWI + DCE-MRI (AUC = 0.89/0.84 for R1/R2) performed no better than T2-weighted imaging + DWI (p = 0.48/p > 0.99 for R1/R2). On multivariate analysis, the clinical + mpMRI model incorporating T2-weighted imaging + DWI (AUC = 0.92/0.88 for R1/R2) predicted downgrading significantly better than the clinical model (AUC = 0.73; p < 0.001 for R1/R2). CONCLUSION: mpMRI improves the ability to identify a subgroup of patients with Gleason 3 + 4 PCa on biopsy who are candidates for active surveillance. DCE-MRI (compared to T2 + DWI) offered no additional benefit to the prediction of downgrading. KEY POINTS: Diagnostic performance of T2-weighted-imaging + DWI was better than T2-weighted-imaging alone. Diagnostic performance of T2-weighted-imaging + DWI was similar to T2-weighted-imaging + DWI + DCE-MRI. Combining clinical and T2-weighted-imaging + DWI features best predicted GS downgrading. mpMRI might prevent overtreatment by increasing eligibility for PCa active surveillance.