TJ Johnston, GL Shaw, AD Lamb, D Parashar, D Greenberg, T Xiong, AL Edwards, V Gnanapragasam, P Holding, P Herbert, M Davis, E Mizielinsk, JA Lane, J Oxley, M Robinson, M Mason, J Staffurth, P Bollina, J Catto, A Doble, A Doherty, D Gillatt, R Kockelbergh, H Kynaston, S Prescott, A Paul, P Powell, D Rosario, E Rowe, JL Donovan, FC Hamdy, DE Neal, ProtecT study group
BACKGROUND: Early detection and treatment of asymptomatic men with advanced and high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) may improve survival rates. OBJECTIVE: To determine outcomes for men diagnosed with advanced PCa following prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing who were excluded from the ProtecT randomised trial. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Mortality was compared for 492 men followed up for a median of 7.4 yr to a contemporaneous cohort of men from the UK Anglia Cancer Network (ACN) and with a matched subset from the ACN. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: PCa-specific and all-cause mortality were compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox's proportional hazards regression. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Of the 492 men excluded from the ProtecT cohort, 37 (8%) had metastases (N1, M0=5, M1=32) and 305 had locally advanced disease (62%). The median PSA was 17μg/l. Treatments included radical prostatectomy (RP; n=54; 11%), radiotherapy (RT; n=245; 50%), androgen deprivation therapy (ADT; n=122; 25%), other treatments (n=11; 2%), and unknown (n=60; 12%). There were 49 PCa-specific deaths (10%), of whom 14 men had received radical treatment (5%); and 129 all-cause deaths (26%). In matched ProtecT and ACN cohorts, 37 (9%) and 64 (16%), respectively, died of PCa, while 89 (22%) and 103 (26%) died of all causes. ProtecT men had a 45% lower risk of death from PCa compared to matched cases (hazard ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.38-0.83; p=0.0037), but mortality was similar in those treated radically. The nonrandomised design is a limitation. CONCLUSIONS: Men with PSA-detected advanced PCa excluded from ProtecT and treated radically had low rates of PCa death at 7.4-yr follow-up. Among men who underwent nonradical treatment, the ProtecT group had a lower rate of PCa death. Early detection through PSA testing, leadtime bias, and group heterogeneity are possible factors in this finding. PATIENT SUMMARY: Prostate cancer that has spread outside the prostate gland without causing symptoms can be detected via prostate-specific antigen testing and treated, leading to low rates of death from this disease.