R Arellano-Llamas, L Alfaro-Ruiz, C Arriaga Canon, I Imaz Rosshandler, A Cruz-Lagunas, J Zúñiga, R Rebollar Vega, CW Wong, S Maurer-Stroh, S Romero Córdoba, ET Liu, A Hidalgo-Miranda, JA Vázquez-Pérez
Since the emergence of the pandemic H1N1pdm09 virus in Mexico and California, biannual increases in the number of cases have been detected in Mexico. As observed in previous seasons, pandemic A/H1N1 09 virus was detected in severe cases during the 2011-2012 winter season and finally, during the 2013-2014 winter season it became the most prevalent influenza virus. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the whole viral genome are necessary to determine the antigenic and pathogenic characteristics of influenza viruses that cause severe outcomes of the disease. In this paper, we analyzed the evolution, antigenic and genetic drift of Mexican isolates from 2009, at the beginning of the pandemic, to 2014. We found a clear variation of the virus in Mexico from the 2011-2014 season due to different markers and in accordance with previous reports. In this study, we identified 13 novel substitutions with important biological effects, including virulence, T cell epitope presented by MHC and host specificity shift and some others substitutions might have more than one biological function. The systematic monitoring of mutations on whole genome of influenza A pH1N1 (2009) virus circulating at INER in Mexico City might provide valuable information to predict the emergence of new pathogenic influenza virus.