G Volpe, JD Bernstock, L Peruzzotti-Jametti, S Pluchino
There exists an urgent need for effective treatments for those patients suffering from chronic/progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Accordingly, it has become readily apparent that different classes of stem cell-based therapies must be explored at both the basic science and clinical levels. Herein, we provide an overview of the basic mechanisms underlying the pre-clinical benefits of exogenously delivered non-hematopoietic stem cells (nHSCs) in animal models of MS. Further, we highlight a number of early clinical trials in which nHSCs have been used to treat MS. Finally, we identify a series of challenges that must be met and ultimately overcome if such promising therapeutics are to be advanced from the bench to the bedside.