A new phylogenetics approach and algorithm with which to chart the evolutionary history of organisms is presented. It utilizes mass spectral data produced from the proteolytic digestion of proteins, rather than partial or complete gene or translated gene sequences. The concept and validity of the approach is demonstrated herein using both theoretical and experimental mass data, together with the translated gene sequences of the hemagglutinin protein of the influenza virus. A comparison of the mass trees with conventional sequenced-based phylogenetic trees, using two separate tree comparison algorithms, reveals a high degree of similarity and congruence among the trees. Given that the mass map data can be generated more rapidly than gene sequences, even when next generation parallel sequencing is employed, mass trees offer new opportunities and advantages for phylogenetic analysis.