S Gururangan, J Fangusaro, T Young Poussaint, A Onar-Thomas, RJ Gilbertson, S Vajapeyam, A Gajjar, S Goldman, HS Friedman, RJ Packer, JM Boyett, LE Kun, R McLendon
A phase II study of bevacizumab (BVZ) plus irinotecan (CPT-11) was conducted in cases of pediatric recurrent ependymoma (EPN) to estimate sustained objective response rate and progression-free survival (PFS). Eligible patients received 2 doses of single-agent BVZ intravenously (10 mg/kg) 2 weeks apart and then BVZ + CPT-11 every 2 weeks until progressive disease, unacceptable toxicity, or a maximum of 2 years of therapy. Correlative studies included diffusion-weighted and T1 dynamic contrast enhanced permeability imaging and tumor immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and -B, hypoxia inducible factor-2α, VEGF receptor (R)-2, and carbonic anhydrase (CA)-9. Thirteen evaluable patients received a median of 3 courses (range, 2-12) of BVZ + CPT-11. No sustained response was observed in any patient. Median time to progression in 10 patients was 2.2 months (range, 1.9-6.3). Two patients had stable disease for 10 months and 12 months, respectively. Six-month PFS was 25.7% (SE = 11.1%). Grades I-III toxicities related to BVZ treatment included fatigue in 4 patients, systemic hypertension in 2, epistaxis in 1, headache in 1, and avascular necrosis of bone in 1. Although there was a decrease in the mean diffusion ratio following 2 doses of BVZ, it did not correlate with PFS. BVZ + CPT-11 was well tolerated but had minimal efficacy in cases of recurrent EPN.