ET Chouchani, AM James, C Methner, VR Pell, TA Prime, BK Erickson, M Forkink, GY Lau, TP Bright, KE Menger, IM Fearnley, T Krieg, MP Murphy
J Biol Chem
Nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-) are known to be cardioprotective and to alter energy metabolism in vivo NO3- action results from its conversion to NO2- by salivary bacteria, but the mechanism(s) by which NO2- affects metabolism remains obscure. NO2- may act by S-nitrosating protein thiols, thereby altering protein activity. But how this occurs, and the functional importance of S-nitrosation sites across the mammalian proteome, remain largely uncharacterized. Here we analyzed protein thiols within mouse hearts in vivo using quantitative proteomics to determine S-nitrosation site occupancy. We extended the thiol-redox proteomic technique, isotope-coded affinity tag labeling, to quantify the extent of NO2--dependent S-nitrosation of proteins thiols in vivo Using this approach, called SNOxICAT (S-nitrosothiol redox isotope-coded affinity tag), we found that exposure to NO2- under normoxic conditions or exposure to ischemia alone results in minimal S-nitrosation of protein thiols. However, exposure to NO2- in conjunction with ischemia led to extensive S-nitrosation of protein thiols across all cellular compartments. Several mitochondrial protein thiols exposed to the mitochondrial matrix were selectively S-nitrosated under these conditions, potentially contributing to the beneficial effects of NO2- on mitochondrial metabolism. The permeability of the mitochondrial inner membrane to HNO2, but not to NO2-, combined with the lack of S-nitrosation during anoxia alone or by NO2- during normoxia places constraints on how S-nitrosation occurs in vivo and on its mechanisms of cardioprotection and modulation of energy metabolism. Quantifying S-nitrosated protein thiols now allows determination of modified cysteines across the proteome and identification of those most likely responsible for the functional consequences of NO2- exposure.