OBJECTIVE: To assess whether mutations in the hot-spots of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor-2 gene (FGFR2, exons encoding the IIIa, IIIb, IIIc and transmembrane domain, TMD) are associated with the development of prostate cancer, as the IIIb variant is the specific receptor for FGF7/KGF, an androgen-inducible paracrine factor regulating prostatic growth. Materials and methods Single-strand conformational polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (SSCP-PCR) and cycle-sequencing analysis were used to screen FGFR2 mutations in 30 patients with prostate cancer; corresponding blood samples were analysed from 11 of the patients. The human prostate cell lines, LNCaP, PC3, DU145, PNT1A and PNT1B were also examined. In addition, 10 foci of invasive cancer from three patients who underwent radical prostatectomy were also assessed. RESULTS: Positive controls containing FGFR2 mutations (Crouzon disease and Pfieffer syndrome) were confirmed by SSCP-PCR and sequencing. Analysis of all prostate tumour samples and prostate-derived cell lines revealed no polymorphisms or mutations in the IIIa, IIIb, IIIc and TMD regions of FGFR2. CONCLUSION: FGFR2 mutations in the-FGF binding domain and the TMD are not frequent events in human prostate cancer.