E Sala, SC Eberhardt, O Akin, CS Moskowitz, CN Onyebuchi, K Kuroiwa, N Ishill, MJ Zelefsky, JA Eastham, H Hricak
PURPOSE: To evaluate retrospectively the accuracy of endorectal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the depiction of tumor, extracapsular extension (ECE), and seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) before salvage prostatectomy in patients with locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiation therapy, by using pathologic analysis as the reference standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Institutional Review Board granted exempt status for this HIPAA-compliant study, with a waiver of informed consent. Forty-five consecutive patients (age range, 43-76 years) were identified who underwent salvage radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between December 1, 1998, and October 31, 2004, and who underwent endorectal MR imaging prior to surgery. Tumor localization and determination of local stage with MR imaging were performed independently by two radiologists. Interpretations were compared to pathologic findings from surgical specimens. Interrater variability was estimated with the kappa statistic. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) were used to assess the accuracy of endorectal MR imaging in tumor detection and determination of ECE and SVI. RESULTS: Findings of histologic examination showed that tumor was present in all patients. For tumor detection, the AUC value for reader 1 was 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67, 0.84), whereas the AUC value for reader 2 was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.52, 0.71). The AUC values for prediction of ECE were 0.87 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.94) for reader 1 and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.85) for reader 2. The AUC values for prediction of SVI were 0.76 (95% CI: 0.62, 0.90) for reader 1 and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.85) for reader 2. For all variables, the kappa statistics used to assess interrater agreement between readers were fair (0.45, 0.52, and 0.47 for tumor location, ECE, and SVI, respectively). CONCLUSION: Endorectal MR imaging following radiation therapy can help identify tumor sites and depict ECE and SVI with reasonable accuracy in patients with recurrent prostate cancer.