R Bedair, MJ Graves, AJ Patterson, MA McLean, R Manavaki, T Wallace, S Reid, I Mendichovszky, J Griffiths, FJ Gilbert
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PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of radiofrequency transmit field (B1(+)) correction on (a) the measured T1 relaxation times of normal breast tissue and malignant lesions and (b) the pharmacokinetically derived parameters of malignant breast lesions at 3 T. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethics approval and informed consent were obtained. Between May 2013 and January 2014, 30 women (median age, 58 years; range, 32-83 years) with invasive ductal carcinoma of at least 10 mm were recruited to undergo dynamic contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging before surgery. B1(+) and T1 mapping sequences were performed to determine the effect of B1(+) correction on the native tissue relaxation time (T10) of fat, parenchyma, and malignant lesions in both breasts. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated before and after correction for B1(+) variations. Results were correlated with histologic grade by using the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: Measurements showed a mean 37% flip angle difference between the right and left breast, which resulted in a 61% T10 difference in fat and a 41.5% difference in parenchyma between the two breasts. The T1 of lesions in the right breast increased by 58%, whereas that of lesions in the left breast decreased by 30% after B1(+) correction. The whole-tumor transendothelial permeability across the vascular compartment(K(trans)) of lesions in the right breast decreased by 41%, and that of lesions in the left breast increased by 46% after correction. A systematic increase in K(trans) was observed, with significant differences found across the histologic grades (P < .001). The effect size of B1(+) correction on K(trans) calculation was large for lesions in the right breast and moderate for lesions in the left breast (Cohen effect size, d = 0.86 and d = 0.59, respectively). CONCLUSION: B1(+) correction demonstrates a substantial effect on the results of quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced analysis of breast tissue at 3 T, which propagates into the pharmacokinetic analysis of tumors that is dependent on whether the tumor is located in the right or left breast.
E-pub date: 
31 May 2016
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John Griffiths
Mary McLean