H Lu, C Poirier, T Cook, DO Traktuev, S Merfeld-Clauss, B Lease, I Petrache, KL March, NV Bogatcheva
J Transl Med
BACKGROUND: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a condition that contributes to morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. We investigated whether factors secreted by adipose stromal cells (ASC) into conditioned media (ASC-CM) will effectively decrease lung injury in the model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS. METHODS: To assess the effect of ASC-CM on ARDS indices, intravenous delivery of ASC and ASC-CM to C57Bl/6 mice was carried out 4 h after LPS oropharyngeal aspiration; Evans Blue Dye (EBD) was injected intravenously 1 h prior to animal sacrifice (48 h post-LPS). Lungs were either fixed for histopathology, or used to extract bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) or EBD. To assess the effect of ASC-CM on endothelial barrier function and apoptosis, human pulmonary artery endothelial cells were treated with ASC-CM for 48-72 h. RESULTS: ASC-CM markedly reduced LPS-induced histopathologic changes of lung, protein extravasation into BALF, and suppressed the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL6. White Blood Cells (WBC) from BALF of LPS-challenged mice receiving ASC-CM had decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation compared to WBC from LPS-challenged mice receiving control media injection. Treatment of pulmonary endothelial monolayers with ASC-CM significantly suppressed H2O2-induced leakage of FITC dextran and changes in transendothelial resistance, as well as gap formation in endothelial monolayer. ASC-CM exposure reduced the percentage of endothelial cells expressing ICAM-1, and suppressed TNFα-induced expression of E-selectin and cleavage of caspase-3. ASC-CM reduced the endothelial level of pro-apoptotic protein Bim, but did not affect the level of Bcl-2, Bad, or Bad phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS: Factors secreted by ASC efficiently reduce ARDS indices, endothelial barrier hyperpermeability, and activation of pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic pathways in endothelium.