JS Carroll, XS Liu, AS Brodsky, W Li, CA Meyer, AJ Szary, J Eeckhoute, W Shao, EV Hestermann, TR Geistlinger, EA Fox, PA Silver, M Brown
Estrogen plays an essential physiologic role in reproduction and a pathologic one in breast cancer. The completion of the human genome has allowed the identification of the expressed regions of protein-coding genes; however, little is known concerning the organization of their cis-regulatory elements. We have mapped the association of the estrogen receptor (ER) with the complete nonrepetitive sequence of human chromosomes 21 and 22 by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with tiled microarrays. ER binds selectively to a limited number of sites, the majority of which are distant from the transcription start sites of regulated genes. The unbiased sequence interrogation of the genuine chromatin binding sites suggests that direct ER binding requires the presence of Forkhead factor binding in close proximity. Furthermore, knockdown of FoxA1 expression blocks the association of ER with chromatin and estrogen-induced gene expression demonstrating the necessity of FoxA1 in mediating an estrogen response in breast cancer cells.