The coordinated regulation of gene expression in higher eukaryotes is complex and poorly understood. Recent technological advances have allowed the first insights into these networks on a genome-wide scale. These investigations have identified transcription factor target sites in the genome and successfully predicted cooperative interactions with other factors. However, a detailed understanding of the processes that coordinate gene expression remains elusive. Here, we highlight the advances that have been made using current methods, and the need for new technologies to address the gaps in our knowledge and to map these complex pathways further.