EJ Harris, EM Donovan, JR Yarnold, CE Coles, PM Evans, IMPORT Trial Management Group
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys
PURPOSE: To determine target volume changes by using volume and shape analysis for patients receiving radiotherapy after breast conservation surgery and to compare different methods of automatically identifying changes in target volume, position, size, and shape during radiotherapy for use in adaptive radiotherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eleven patients undergoing whole breast radiotherapy had fiducial markers sutured into the excision cavity at the time of surgery. Patients underwent imaging using computed tomography (for planning and at the end of treatment) and during treatment by using portal imaging. A marker volume (MV) was defined by using the measured marker positions. Changes in both individual marker positions and MVs were identified manually and using six automated similarity indices. Comparison of the two types of analysis (manual and automated) was undertaken to establish whether similarity indices can be used to automatically detect changes in target volumes. RESULTS: Manual analysis showed that 3 patients had significant MV reduction. This analysis also showed significant changes between planning computed tomography and the start of treatment for 9 patients, including single and multiple marker movement, deformation (shape change), and rotation. Four of the six similarity indices were shown to be sensitive to the observed changes. CONCLUSIONS: Significant changes in size, shape, and position occur to the fiducial marker-defined volume. Four similarity indices can be used to identify these changes, and a protocol for their use in adaptive radiotherapy is suggested.