An antiserum to rabbit bone stromelysin (proteoglycanase) was raised in sheep and characterized as specific, recognizing the enzyme from both different tissue sources and different species. This antiserum and a specific antiserum to rabbit bone collagenase were used in the study of metalloproteinase production by rabbit articular chondrocytes stimulated with either interleukin 1 or mononuclear cell-conditioned medium. It was shown by electroimmunoblotting that the apparently co-ordinate (mole:mole) induction of collagenase and stromelysin activity with time correlated in either case with an increase in enzyme protein. The stimulated production of both enzymes could be modified in parallel by a variety of compounds. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed that although most cells were producing both metalloproteinases simultaneously, some chondrocytes produced detectable levels of only one. The data are discussed in relation to the mechanisms of breakdown in connective tissues.