Current methods of predicting prognosis in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder fail to provide consistently reliable information about future tumour behaviour. The monoclonal antibody Ki67 recognises an antigen present in actively dividing cells and Ki67 reactivity has been shown to correlate with conventional prognostic indicators in several tumours. In this study, Ki67 antibody was used to determine the proportions of cells undergoing active division in 26 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. The proportion of cells stained in muscle invasive tumours (12.3 +/- 5.4%) was significantly greater than in superficial tumours (4.3 +/- 1.9%) and poorly differentiated tumours showed significantly greater proportions of cells staining compared with well or moderately well differentiated tumours. These results show that Ki67 reactivity correlates with high tumour stage and poor differentiation. Ki67 staining provides an easy method of determining tumour cell turnover that might provide additional prognostic information.