ME Crooks, DR Littman, RH Carter, DT Fearon, A Weiss, PH Stein
Mol Cell Biol
T-cell activation involves two distinct signal transduction pathways. Antigen-specific signaling events are initiated by T-cell receptor recognition of cognate peptide presented by major histocompatibility complex molecules. Costimulatory signals, which are required for optimal T-cell activation and for overcoming the induction of anergy, can be provided by the homodimeric T-cell glycoprotein CD28 through its interaction with the counterreceptors B7-1 and B7-2 on antigen-presenting cells. Ligation of CD28 results in its phosphorylation on tyrosines and the subsequent recruitment and activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). It has been suggested that the induced association of CD28 and PI 3-kinase is required for costimulation. We report here that ligation of CD19, a heterologous B-cell receptor that also associates with and activates PI 3-kinase upon ligation, failed to costimulate interleukin-2 production. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of PI 3-kinase activity failed to block costimulation mediated by CD28. By mutational analysis, we demonstrate that disruption of PI 3-kinase association with CD28 also did not abrogate costimulation. These results argue that PI 3-kinase association with CD28 is neither necessary nor sufficient for costimulation of interleukin-2 production. Finally, we identify specific amino acid residues required for CD28-mediated costimulatory activity.