GJ Doherty, M Petruzzelli, E Beddowes, SS Ahmad, C Caldas, RJ Gilbertson
Annu Rev Biochem
The complexity of human cancer underlies its devastating clinical consequences. Drugs designed to target the genetic alterations that drive cancer have improved the outcome for many patients, but not the majority of them. Here, we review the genomic landscape of cancer, how genomic data can provide much more than a sum of its parts, and the approaches developed to identify and validate genomic alterations with potential therapeutic value. We highlight notable successes and pitfalls in predicting the value of potential therapeutic targets and discuss the use of multi-omic data to better understand cancer dependencies and drug sensitivity. We discuss how integrated approaches to collecting, curating, and sharing these large data sets might improve the identification and prioritization of cancer vulnerabilities as well as patient stratification within clinical trials. Finally, we outline how future approaches might improve the efficiency and speed of translating genomic data into clinically effective therapies and how the use of unbiased genome-wide information can identify novel, predictive biomarkers that can be either simple or complex. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry Volume 88 is June 20, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.