U Asenbaum, R Nolz, G Karanikas, J Furtner, R Woitek, I Simonitsch-Klupp, M Raderer, ME Mayerhoefer
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the diagnostic utility of standardized uptake values (SUV) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) for assessment of focal and diffuse bone marrow involvement in patients with malignant lymphoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty treatment-naive patients (28 males; mean age 51.2 ± 16.7 years) with histologically proven lymphoma, who underwent fludeoxyglucose (18F) positron emission tomography-computed tomography ([F18]-FDG-PET/CT) and whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (WB-DWI) within 7 days, and also routine bone marrow biopsy, were included in this institutional review board-approved, retrospective study. The maximum SUV (SUVmax) on [F18]-FDG-PET/CT, and the mean ADC (ADCmean, ×10-3 mm2/s) on whole-body-DWI, were extracted from focal lesions, or, in their absence, from the thoracic (Th8) and lumbar vertebral bodies (L4), the sacral bone (S1), and the iliac crest. Lesion-to-liver-ratios (SUVmax-ratio) were calculated. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between SUVmax-ratios and ADCmean values. RESULTS: Bone marrow involvement was observed in 16 of 60 patients (8 of 16 with diffuse infiltration). The SUVmax-ratio cutoff value was 95.25% for focal and 70.2% for diffuse bone marrow involvement (sensitivity/specificity of 87.5%/86.4% and 100%/43.2%, respectively). The ADCmean cutoff value was 0.498 for focal and 0.401 for diffuse bone marrow involvement (sensitivity/specificity of 100%/90.9% and 87.5%/56.8%, respectively). No significant correlations were found between SUVmax-ratios and ADCmean values in the different groups. CONCLUSION: With the liver as reference tissue, quantitative [F18]-FDG-PET/CT may be useful to differentiate bone marrow involvement from normal bone marrow in patients with lymphoma, even though the specificity for diffuse marrow involvement is rather low. Quantitative DWI can be used only to distinguish focal bone marrow lesions from normal bone marrow.