T Krieg, Y Liu, T Rütz, C Methner, X-M Yang, T Dost, SB Felix, J-P Stasch, MV Cohen, JM Downey
Eur Heart J
AIMS: BAY 58-2667 (BAY-58) directly activates soluble guanylyl cyclase without tolerance in a nitric oxide (NO)-independent manner, and its haemodynamic effect is similar to that of nitroglycerin. We tested whether BAY-58 could make both rabbit and rat hearts resistant to infarction when given at the end of an ischaemic insult. METHODS AND RESULTS: All hearts were exposed to 30 min regional ischaemia followed by 120-(isolated hearts) or 180-(in situ hearts) min reperfusion. BAY-58 (1-50 nM) infused for 60 min starting 5 min before reperfusion significantly reduced infarction from 33.0 +/- 3.2% in control isolated rabbit hearts to 9.5-12.7% (P < 0.05). In a more clinically relevant in situ rabbit model, infarct size was similarly reduced with a loading dose of 53.6 microg/kg followed by a 60 min infusion of 1.25 microg/kg/min (41.1 +/- 3.1% infarction in control hearts to 16.0 +/- 4.4% in treated hearts, P < 0.05). BAY-58 similarly decreased infarction in the isolated rat heart, and protection was abolished by co-treatment with a protein kinase G (PKG) antagonist, or a mitochondrial K(ATP) channel antagonist. Conversely, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester-hydrochloride, a NO-synthase inhibitor, failed to block BAY-58's ability to decrease infarction, consistent with the latter's putative NO-independent activation of PKG. Finally, BAY-58 increased myocardial cGMP content in reperfused hearts while cAMP was unchanged. CONCLUSION: When applied at reperfusion, BAY-58 is an effective cardioprotective agent with a mechanism similar to that of ischaemic pre-conditioning and, hence, should be a candidate for treatment of acute myocardial infarction in man.