KE Driver, H Song, F Lesueur, S Ahmed, NL Barbosa-Morais, JP Tyrer, BAJ Ponder, DF Easton, PDP Pharoah, AM Dunning, Studies in Epidemiology and Risks of Cancer Heredity (SEARCH) Team
Using a large-scale case-control study, we examined whether common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 13 genes involved in the cell cycle pathway are associated with breast cancer risk. Seventy-nine tag SNPs were used to evaluate 240 common SNPs found in the genes: CCND1, CCND2, CCND3, CCNE1, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, CDKN1A, CDKNIB, CDKN2A/CDKN2B, CDKN2C and CDKN2D. These were genotyped in 2270 cases and 2280 controls from the Studies in Epidemiology and Risks of Cancer Heredity (SEARCH) study. Tag SNPs showing evidence of statistically significant differences between cases and controls (P < 0.1) were genotyped in a further 2200 cases and 2280 controls from the same population. This approach found evidence for breast cancer-associated SNPs in four of the cell cycle genes: the cyclin CCNE1 rs997669 had an odds ratio (OR) (GG/AA) of 1.18 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04-1.34] P = 0.003 and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors-CDKN1A rs3176336: OR (TT/AA) = 1.25 (95% CI 1.11-1.42) P = 0.0026; CDKN1B rs34330: OR (TT/CC) = 1.22 (95% CI 1.02-1.47) P = 0.013 and the region of CDKN2A/2B rs3731239: OR (CC/TT) = 0.90 (95% CI 0.79-1.03) P = 0.013 and rs3218005 OR (GG/AA) = 1.55 (95% CI 1.02-2.37) P = 0.013 (P-values unadjusted for multiple testing). We were able to exclude the D-type cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, CDKN2C and CDKN2D from having any significantly associated risk with breast cancer in our study population. The combined effects of the cell cycle genes considered here provide evidence for a significant association with breast cancer risk in a global test (P-heterogeneity = 0.010, P-trend = 0.048). Further large-scale studies are needed to confirm these results.