We present a powerful and cost-effective method for active illumination using a digital micromirror device (DMD) for quantitative phase-imaging techniques. Displaying binary illumination patterns on a DMD with appropriate spatial filtering, plane waves with various illumination angles are generated and impinged onto a sample. Complex optical fields of the sample obtained with various incident angles are then measured via Mach-Zehnder interferometry, from which a high-resolution 2D synthetic aperture phase image and a 3D refractive index tomogram of the sample are reconstructed. We demonstrate the fast and stable illumination-control capability of the proposed method by imaging colloidal spheres and biological cells. The capability of high-speed optical diffraction tomography is also demonstrated by measuring 3D Brownian motion of colloidal particles with the tomogram acquisition rate of 100 Hz.