B Venugopal, R Baird, RS Kristeleit, R Plummer, R Cowan, A Stewart, N Fourneau, P Hellemans, Y Elsayed, S McClue, JW Smit, A Forslund, C Phelps, J Camm, TRJ Evans, JS de Bono, U Banerji
Clin Cancer Res
PURPOSE: To determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of quisinostat, a novel hydroxamate, pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In this first-in-human phase I study, quisinostat was administered orally, once daily in three weekly cycles to patients with advanced malignancies, using a two-stage accelerated titration design. Three intermittent schedules were subsequently explored: four days on/three days off; every Monday, Wednesday, Friday (MWF); and every Monday and Thursday (M-Th). Toxicity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical efficacy were evaluated at each schedule. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were treated in continuous daily (2-12 mg) and three intermittent dosing schedules (6-19 mg). Treatment-emergent adverse events included: fatigue, nausea, decreased appetite, lethargy, and vomiting. DLTs observed were predominantly cardiovascular, including nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, ST/T-wave abnormalities, and other tachyarhythmias. Noncardiac DLTs were fatigue and abnormal liver function tests. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of quisinostat increased proportionally with dose. Pharmacodynamic evaluation showed increased acetylated histone 3 in hair follicles, skin and tumor biopsies, and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as well as decreased Ki67 in skin and tumor biopsies. A partial response lasting five months was seen in one patient with melanoma. Stable disease was seen in eight patients (duration 4-10.5 months). CONCLUSIONS: The adverse event profile of quisinostat was comparable with that of other HDACi. Intermittent schedules were better tolerated than continuous schedules. On the basis of tolerability, pharmacokinetic predictions, and pharmacodynamic effects, the recommended dose for phase II studies is 12 mg on the MWF schedule.