SM Rudman, MB Jameson, MJ McKeage, P Savage, DI Jodrell, M Harries, G Acton, F Erlandsson, JF Spicer
Clin Cancer Res
PURPOSE: AS1409 is a fusion protein comprising a humanized antibody BC1 linked to interleukin-12 (IL-12). It is designed to deliver IL-12 to tumor-associated vasculature using an antibody targeting the ED-B variant of fibronectin. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We conducted a phase 1 trial of weekly infusional AS1409 in renal carcinoma and malignant melanoma patients. Safety, efficacy, markers of IL-12-mediated immune response, and pharmacokinetics were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 11 melanoma and 2 renal cell carcinoma patients were treated. Doses of 15 and 25 μg/kg were studied. Most drug-related adverse events were grade 2 or less, and included pyrexia, fatigue, chills, headache, vomiting, and transient liver function abnormalities. Three dose limiting toxicities of grade 3 fatigue and transaminase elevation were seen at 25 μg/kg. IFN-γ and interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) were elevated in all patients, indicating activation of cell-mediated immune response; this was attenuated at subsequent cycles. Antidrug antibody responses were seen in all patients, although bioassays indicate these do not neutralize AS1409 activity. Plasma half-life was 22 hours and not dose-dependent. Five patients received 6 cycles or more and a best response of at least stable disease was seen in 6 (46%) patients. Partial response was seen in a melanoma patient, and disease shrinkage associated with metabolic response was maintained beyond 12 months in another melanoma patient despite previous rapid progression. CONCLUSIONS: The maximum tolerated dose was established at 15 μg/kg weekly. AS1409 is well tolerated at this dose. Evidence of efficacy assessed by RECIST, functional imaging, and biomarker response warrants the planned further investigation using this dose and schedule in malignant melanoma.